Monday, January 20, 2020

Elephant Man Essay -- essays research papers

Ashley Montagu tells John Merrick’s unusual story in the book that studies human dignity, The Elephant Man. The Elephant Man, an intriguing book that captures the heart of the spirit, is the story of a simple, yet unfortunate, man. It causes one to think about life’s precious gifts and how often they are taken for granted. As the sad and unique story of John Merrick, “the elephant man,'; unfolds, all are taught a lesson about strength and courage.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When Sir Frederick Treeves first discovered John Merrick in 1884, he could only be described as, “a huddled mass of loneliness';(14). Merrick had a horrible disease called elephantiasis. This extreme misfortune caused Merrick to be lame and his appearance to be that of a monster. With his skull the size of his waist and large quantities of skin growing randomly all over his body, no one wanted to befriend John Merrick. Everywhere he went screams of horror and looks of disgust greeted him. As a young child, his mother passed away leaving him a homeless orphan. So, because of his hideous looks, being displayed as half-man and half-elephant at a freak-show became normal. His life consisted of torment and torture for the next twenty years of his life, until Sir Frederick Treeves asked him to come and be studied at the London hospital. Soon, Treeves arranged with the head of the hospital for Merrick to live in an extra room at the hospital. After twenty years of lon...

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Experiencing a New Country: France Essay

In this short essay, I chose a country I traveled to that opened my eyes to different cultures. France is a country full of diversity and a place I would feel honored to return to, in hopes of learning more from the culture they have to offer. Traveling to France I expected to be entranced by the grand architecture and art that had contributed to history, I was mistaken. I found the heart and soul of the nation in the people. I realized, after much travel, that it is the people and their culture continually that amaze me. After exploring France, I discovered the invigoration of hearing a dissimilar language and learning how to adapt to the new environment. While some travelers carried the pride of their nation, I found it invigorating to assimilate into my new surroundings. In order to accomplish this, I decided to learn French in hopes that continual study of common practices would allow me to live the life of a Frenchmen. Upon arrival I found it easy to adopt the concept of public transportation, and each metro ride became more satisfying as I met varying people of varying nations. I then adjusted my eating schedules and found a taste for French cuisine. With this, I commenced greeting my fellow Frenchmen with, â€Å"Bonjour monsieur! † I was determined to not leave as a stereotypical tourist. I made it my goal to experience the nooks and crannies far from tourist France that is so often portrayed. That is when I found myself sitting in a local brasserie sipping â€Å"une lemonade† and thinking this is one adventure of a lifetime. Now being back in Texas, I hope to embark in my next adventure, to be apart of Colgate Univesity, an institution rich with culture and diversity that produces diplomats of the world.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Rise Of The Nazi War - 931 Words

When the Hitler came into power in 1933, the future of minority groups looked grim. The Nazis first eliminated majority of the Gypsies and Jewish population, but these weren’t the only groups. Touting to create an utopia consisting only of the pure German blood, the Nazis began to exploit other groups such as the homosexuals, and the disabled. These groups were mass murdered. Unlike them, the â€Å"asocials†, â€Å"habitual criminals†, Afro-Germans and foreign workers were not mass murdered but intimidated to the extent that some habitual criminals self mutilated and some foreign workers were hanged. There were many similarities and differences in the maltreatment of these groups. Nazis wanted a purified German blood nation, so how and why did these minorities came to live in Germany? After World War I, Germany was left without hopes. The Weimar Republic tried to better the economy with its progressive ideals, but it was not successful. Thereafter, the stock market crashed in 1929. This devastating event not only inflicted pain in the United States, but in other countries and unemployment rose throughout many Western nations. Moreover, The treaty of Versailles condemning Germany of causing the first World War, required Germany to pay a large sum of gold marks in reparations. Theses events led to the rise of Hitler, and an increase in the numbers of vagrants, thieves, prostitutes on the streets, who became known as the â€Å"asocials† and â€Å"habitual criminals.† Nazis defined theShow MoreRelatedThe Rise Of Nazi Germany Was The Capstone Of The Inter-War1158 Words   |  5 Pages The rise of Nazi Germany was the capstone of the inter-war period, and led to the outbreak of World War II, shattering the tenuous peace. The Nazi regime s progress was paralleled by the life of its leader, Adolf Hitler. Born in a small town in Austria, Hitler dreamed of being an artist. Unable to demonstrate sufficient artistic skill for entrance into the art academy in Vienna, he did odd jobs and developed an interest in politics. In 1914, Hitler joined the German army, and earned the iron crossRead MoreA Brief Note On Nazis And The Environment1023 Words   |  5 PagesCourtney Morrison War Environment Professor Yan Gao 2 December 2015 Nazis and the Environment The Nazi party in Germany left behind a legacy of atrocities that included racism, anti-Semitism, and genocide. The appeal of the Nazis relied on problems in Germany following the aftermath of World War I. They examined the different problems Germany faced and the different aspects of their political beliefs, one in particular being their environmental outlook. The Nazi party drew substantial support withRead MoreThe Causes Of World War Two. On June, 28 1919, The Treaty763 Words   |  4 PagesWorld War Two On June, 28 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was signed. This treaty coupled with other factors, such as the Nazis rise to power in Germany, Europe’s policy of appeasement, and Germany’s invasion of Poland would lead to - and be direct causes of - World War II. In fact, when French military commander Marshal Foch heard of the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, her observed with extreme accuracy - â€Å"This is not Peace. It is an Armistice for 20 years.† (Churchill, 7) World War I officiallyRead MorePutzier 1. Tessa Putzier. Ms. Jeanne Bitz . Language Arts.1293 Words   |  6 PagesWorld War Two On June, 28 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was signed. This treaty coupled with other factors, such as the Nazis rise to power in Germany, Europe’s policy of appeasement, and Germany’s invasion of Poland would lead to - and be direct causes of - World War II. In fact, when French military commander Marshal Foch heard of the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, her observed with extreme accuracy - â€Å"This is not Peace. It is an Armistice for 20 years.† (Churchill, 7) World War I officiallyRead MoreSpeer’s Rise in the Nazi Party Essay953 Words   |  4 PagesSpeer’s Rise in the Nazi Party Albert Speer rose from a mere architect to be one of the most influential Nazi leaders of the Third Reich, and self-admittedly Hitler’s closest friend. As a young, struggling architect Speer joined the Nazi Party as a ‘Septemberling’, and subsequently began to design many of the displays and structures that succeeded in promoting the Fuhrer Myth. Within the NSDAP Speer progressed to the position of Minister for Armaments and War ProductionRead MoreGermans Into Nazis by Peter Fritzsche Essay791 Words   |  4 Pages ‘German’s Into Nazis’ by Peter Fritzsche 1) Germany before the Fuhrer. Germany’s defeat at the end of World War I left the nation socially, politically, and economically shattered. The reparation agreements inflicted upon Germany without its’ consent at the end of the war meant that the nation was in complete financial ruin. In the wake of Germany’s defeat, public decent climaxed on the 9th November 1918 during the revolution that took place on Berlin’s Postdamer PlatzRead MoreReasons Why Nazis Came to Power in 19331712 Words   |  7 PagesReasons Why Nazis Came to Power in 1933 There are several factors that enabled the Nazi party, with Hitler as its leader, was able to come to power in Germany in 1933. There are 5 main reasons involved history, economics, politics and the personality of Hitler. The main political events occurred in 1923 and 1933. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the most important causes that led to Hitlers rise in Germany. From the German point of view the treaty was incrediblyRead MorePolitical Factors That Influenced People Into Voting Nazi1676 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"THE RISE OF FASCISM IN GERMANY (1919-1939) ONLY RESULTED IN HARDSHIP FOR THE GERMAN PEOPLE.† - ANALYTICAL HISTORICAL ESSAY Introduction: The time of 1919 to 1939 was a specific post war period after the great depression where certain right-wing parties dominated indoctrinating their fascist and nationalistic ideals on the German people. The rise of fascism in Germany 1919 – 1939, not only resulted in hardship but also in prosperity for some Germans. The topics that will be addressed and discussedRead MorePresident Hindenburg s Influence On The Rise Of Power1354 Words   |  6 PagesHindenburg was one of many contributing factors to Hitler’s rise to power. Power is the capacity or ability to direct or influence the behaviour of others or the course of events. President Hindenburg passed on a role in government to Hitler, but Hindenburg took the risk and didn’t know what he was in for. The argument produced is about the importance of President Hindenburg’s actions, what effect the Great Depression made on Hitler’s rise to power and the long term resentment about the Treaty ofRead Mo reThe Nazi Regime959 Words   |  4 PagesThe rise of the Nazi regime in Germany in the early part of the 20th century was an impressive, and nearly unforeseen incident that had long-lasting implications on the rest of the Western world. While the Nazi party was extreme in their ideologies, the circumstances in which they came to power were dire; Germany had been crippled by a massive depression and was being forced to pay reparations through the â€Å"Young Plan† which required Germany to pay the Allied forces â€Å"a series of annual payments extending

Friday, December 27, 2019

Whistleblowers Compared to Edward Snowden - 691 Words

Many have drawn comparisons between Edward Snowden and other whistleblowers, and I have heard a few refer to him as â€Å"the Daniel Ellsberg of this century.† Snowden is responsible for revealing to the general public the acts of the National Surveillance Association (NSA) that many citizens felt was a violation of their individual privacy rights. Two questions arise from this contemporary issue. First, is the violation of privacy rights a form of state violence? Second, is living in the United States a form of consent? There are easy answers to these questions: yes the violation of privacy rights is a form of state violence, but the simple act of being a United States citizen is gives the government consent to collect one’s information. How is the invasion of privacy an act of violence? Violence has many definitions, but it can be understood as a force that â€Å"†¦forcibly interfer[es] with personal freedom.† In this case, if people have the personal fre edom to maintain a certain level of privacy, then NSA data collection is surely inflicting violence upon people by infringing upon these rights. However, according to Max Weber, the state (and thus the United States government) is a political organization that has the monopoly of the legitimate use of violence. Maximilien Robespierre builds on these ideas and maintains that terror (or violence) is a necessary component that every government employs in order to maintain order and ensure the survival of the Republic. We live aShow MoreRelatedEdmund Burkes Reflections on the Revolution in France and John Stuart Mills On Liberty1277 Words   |  6 Pagesfrom both Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France and John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty. In comparing these two philosophers, I will be paralleling their ideas and my own ideas I will be attributing them towards the modern day whistleblower, Edward Snowden. Political figures, government representatives and philosophy advocates have carefully studied Burke’s and Mill’s writings over hundreds of years to better understand their theories on g overnmental control in a society. One of, if notRead MoreEdward Snowden and The Government Data Collection Program1439 Words   |  6 PagesLon Snowden, as well as others have compared Edward Snowden to â€Å"Paul Revere† and have called him a â€Å"Hero† while others vilify him (Gidda 3). Technically what he has done is a crime, yet many people rally to his defence. â€Å"There is every reason to believe the federal government has been collecting every bit of information about every American’s phone calls†(Hertzberg 2). Through Edward Snowden’s actions we have learned of the governments data collecting program: Prism. This has provoked the publicRead More Whistleblowers: Are They Heroes or Traitors? Essay1524 Words   |  7 Pagesflaws, give the knowledge, empower the people, and count on them to make collective decisions on how to deal with these issues. Whistleblowers are intriguing. They grip the crowd’s attention through the risky and dangerous oddities they perform. They make sure people understand the real situation in which they are in. Ordinary citizens are drawn to whistleblowers because they are willing to put their life on the line for the â€Å"common good†, like people are enchanted by superheroes. This relationshipRead More Edward Snowden and Wikileaks744 Words   |  3 Pagesthat this was not just to monitor the activities of suspected terrorists. In 2013 when Edward Snowden released data that proved that the NSA was using their surveillance on everyone it turned speculation into fact and fears of this were brought to the surface. In the summer of 2013 one of the biggest leaks of classified documents was carried out by a man named Edward Snowden (E. McAskill) . Edward Snowden worked as an sysamin (System Administrator) for a security company that did contract workRead MoreLegal Ethics ( Lgls445 )4088 Words   |  17 Pages Legal Ethics (LGLS445) Krish Kothari A.Boggio 05/10/15 Edward Snowden Case It is with no doubt that the issue surrounding whether or not Edward Snowden is a traitor or a patriot raises a heated debate. His whistleblowing afforded him both foes and friends with opponents of his action blaming him by labeling him a traitor, as he went against the employment contract when he spied on his employer and aired the dirty linen of the company in the public. That is open to debateRead MoreThe, Big Brother Is Watching1274 Words   |  6 Pagessame. However there are apps being developed that allow for more privacy. In Evan Spiegel and Bobby Murphy’s interview with Stephen Colbert, they discuss how their smart phone app, Snapchat, promotes â€Å"natural and expressive human communication†. Compared to websites like Facebook, or Twitter, where communication is limited to 140 characters, I’d agree that it encourages a more real sense of human connection. Spiegel and Murphy also address the point of how their app has more privacy than other mediaRead MoreOnline Privacy : Open Link1428 Words   |  6 Pagesto steal classified information, take control over systems for their own intentions, or solely to cause as much harm and disorder as possible. When I think of hacking I immediately think of the whistleblower Edward Snowden and the actions that led to his current state of asylum in Russia. Snowden compared the National Security Agency (NSA) and its surveillance to a panopticon. He was very much against the NSA withholding information from the public, so he took it upon himself to leak many documentsRead MoreThe Tor And Its Relevance Today : The Implications For Digital Privacy Essay1773 Words   |  8 Pagesdecrypts enough of the packet wrapper to reveal which relay the data came from and which relay to send the data to. This middle relay then wraps the data in a new packet wrapper and sends it onto the next relay. The layers of packet wrappers being compared to the layers of an onion are the namesake of onion routing. It didn’t take long for the United States government to realize that the World Wide Web, launched in 1991, would be an extremely valuable tool for their government intelligence agenciesRead MoreIs Information Sensitive Information Exchange For Services?1355 Words   |  6 Pagesgiving up what is known as sensitive information exchange for services. Unfortunately, these same people are not aware of the consequences that follow. A study from 2015 hypothesizes that, â€Å"Adolescents will report less concern regarding their privacy compared to young adults and adults†, showing that our society is moving towards a point where our future generation does not hold value to their privacy (Steign 301). As a direct result, average individuals who are engaged with the Internet are tailoredRead MoreGermany : A Great History Of Free Trade1735 Words   |  7 Pagescompanies compared to the U.S. In the article A Comparison of the Financial Characteristics of U.S. and German Manufac turing Firms the authors state that the U.S. has greater financial possibilities as their manufactures has â€Å"higher liquidity, lower debt, higher profitability, and lower total asset turnover† (Folkinshteyn). The financial comparison between the U.S. and German manufacturing companies can be a tool when looking at international trade. When the financial structure is compared one can

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Fall Of The Berlin Wall - 1346 Words

In 1989, one event occupied the spotlight around the world. The Berlin Wall, which for twenty-eight years had separated families and friends came down as thousands of people began crossing Bornholmer Bridge in northern Berlin. NBC’s Tom Brokaw could be seen on television throughout the United States saying, â€Å"A historic moment tonight. The Berlin Wall can no longer contain the East German people. Thousands pouring across at the Bronholmer bridge† (Dodds, 2014). This single event changed many things in Europe and around the world. The fall of the Berlin Wall that night, which was the ultimate symbol of the Cold War, was a major turning point in the collapse of communism leading to the unification of East and West Germany and was influenced by political leaders from both the Soviet Union and the United States. The fall of the wall affected the Communist world and eventually led to the collapse of the Soviet Union allowing countries under their control to become i ndependent and free. Sixteen years after the end of World War II, the countries that fought on the allies side began clinging to the left overs of Nazi Germany. The victors of World War II, The United States, The United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union divided Germany into four sectors. The U.S.A, England and France were all democratic, capitalist countries, while the Soviet Union was a communist country. While the capitalist countries all shared common believes and ideas, the Soviet Union wanted nothing toShow MoreRelatedThe Fall Of The Berlin Wall Essay1717 Words   |  7 Pages The Fall of the Berlin Wall Berlin Marcelin Chattahoochee Technical College The Berlin Wall is a historical symbol of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall is a symbol of the end of the Cold War. And also, the Berlin Wall played a great role in the life of millions of people and defined the fate of German people, which put them apart by the Wall for a long period of time. Sixteen yearsRead MoreThe Fall of the Berlin Wall666 Words   |  3 Pagesâ€Å"The fall of the Berlin Wall is very much a sequel, a continuation of the story about Eastern Europe emerging from war and communism. The nation of presenting history as a story also appealed to me very much, since that is the way I look at the events I cover as a reporter. -Serge Schmemann The Berlin Wall was a symbol of division between two different political beliefs and two different ways of life. The population during this time was about 3.4 million. This started the Cold War andRead MoreThe Fall of the Berlin Wall757 Words   |  3 Pages The Fall of the Berlin The Berlin wall is a very significant point within history. It began quickly after World War II; Berlin was separated and conquered into four different zones. Each part was owned by Great Britian, France, the United States, or the Soviet Union. Eventually three of these zones (owned by the United States, Great Britain, and France) combined to become West Germany. The Soviet Union hastily followed after these three zones but instead became East Germany. The difference betweenRead MoreThe Fall Of The Berlin Wall1517 Words   |  7 Pagesexperience of the Fall of the Berlin Wall. The main factor in the collapse of the wall was the never ending fight of the individuals who had fallen under the communist state. Most of these individuals came together and fought in order to achieve their goal of a non-communist state and German unification. The Cold War was the conflict between the Eastern bloc (Communist) against the Western Bloc (Capitalist), the separation between them began to be known as the Iron Curtain. The Berlin Wall was physicalRead MoreThe Fall Of The Berlin Wall1889 Words   |  8 PagesThe fall of the Berlin Wall was one of the most influential events of the Cold War. After losing the election is 1945, Winston Churchill gave a very prophetic speech about the â€Å"Iron Curtain† forming in Germany. Sixteen years later, barbed wire stretched across Germany creating the beginning of the Berlin Wall. Later reinforced w ith concrete, the Berlin Wall’s purpose was to stop the migration of the East Germans to West Germany. The Berlin Wall also served as a symbol of the beginning of the ColdRead MoreThe Fall of the Berlin Wall2221 Words   |  9 PagesThe Fall of the Berlin Wall For twenty-eight years, the Berlin Wall separated friends, families, and a nation. Between 1961 and 1989, the Wall was one of the most striking and distinctive features of Berlin. The Berlin Wall was a border security installation built by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) on August 12, 1961. The Wall was to protect the GDR from aggressive acts by the west. In reality, the Wall functioned as a barrier to stem the huge migration of skilled laborers to West Berlin andRead MoreThe Fall Of The Berlin Wall2245 Words   |  9 Pagesdrastically and completely changed. This month marked the beginning of the two-year demolition of the â€Å"Iron Curtain† that descended across the continent and the thawing of the Cold War that waged between the world’s two rival superpowers. The fall of the Berlin Wall not only marked the reunification of Germany after 28 years but, also, the reunification of all of Europe after almost three entire, long decades. Out of the nine original c ountries that comprised the Eastern bloc and were effectively separatedRead MoreThe Fall of the Berlin Wall1382 Words   |  6 PagesGermany (Holzner, World Book, 264). Although this solution seemed pragmatic at the time, a vicious philosophical war between the capitalistic West Germany and the communistic East Germany led to one of the most important events in history: The Berlin Wall. Communism is a method of societal and political order that was a key force in world politics for most of the 20th century. In theory, it would generate a classless culture of wealth and free will. As a movement, communalism desired to conquerRead MoreRise And Fall Of The Berlin Wall1834 Words   |  8 PagesHeather Kilar HIST 3135 Knecht Spring 2016 Research Paper Rise and Fall of The Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall was a barrier that divided Berlin for more than twenty years. Constructed by the German Democratic Republic the wall completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany starting in August 1961 to November of 1989. The wall gave West Germany the power of controlling it’s people who were trying to flee to East Germany and under it’s rule people began to see the repressions of theRead MoreThe Fall of the Berlin Wall and the Disintegration of the Soviet Union964 Words   |  4 Pagescollapse. The inevitable collapse of communism led to the fall of the Berlin Wall; this started the domino effect of freedom that ultimately led to the collapse of the Soviet Union. On Sunday, August 13th, in 1962 the Eastern German government began construction of the Berlin Wall (â€Å"Berlin Wall†). The Berlin Wall was built to divide the post World War II communist ran East Germany with the democratic West Germany. On that day families in Berlin were awaken to military machinery, barbed wire coils, and

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Analysis of Fianancial Statements

Question: Discuss about theAnalysis of Fianancial Statements. Answer: Introduction: As the management of the company was eager to know about the performance of the company. The company is earning good profit but still the main purpose of the report is to advice the management on the steps which it can take for further improvement For advising the company we will make analysis of the profit of the company by seeing the gross profit and net Profit ratio. We will also do some sales analysis. Report on Profitability of the Company: The Profit earning capacity of the company is very good because if the company is earning good Gross Profit of and Net Profit. Approx. 50% Net profit ratio would be very good for any industry. These figures show that the companys product is of superior quality because of which the NP margin is 50% . It means customers are ready to pay higher price for the product just because of the quality because customers can also but similar products for another market but quality would not match. For more clarity, Lets calculate the following profitability ratios: Gross Profit ratio: This ratio defines the gross margin of the company. In other words Sales- Cost of Sales. The formula for the same is Gross Profit/ Net sales: 47290/74450= 63.52% Net Profit ratio: This ratio defines the Net profit earning capacity of the company. This can be calculated with formula Net Profit/ Net Sales: 36790/74450= 49.42%. We can also see that the expenses of the company are also very less which is on the one hand good but for larger companies it is not good. Company should try to expand its business by increasing the sales, with this proportionate expenses will also increase but not in the same proportion as sales will increase. Comments: The company s earning good profit but it should not be satisfied with this earning because sales figure is lower. There would be many opportunities to increase the sales. So, it should try to increase the sales and also the profit of the company. Recommendations for Increasing the Profitability: The company can add variety to the products if the already products which company is manufacturing are already fully established in the market because with the addition of the new products the company can enter new markets through it can increase its sales and also the profits. The company can also train their sales team on periodical intervals and train them about new technological techniques of sales. With this if the sales team are updated with the technology they can grasp the timely opportunities. The company can increase the production of the products with the introduction of new machines, if the company is not having installed capacity. Initially there will be outflow of cash but later on company will earn higher profits and can cover up the cost in few years. Following are the Reports which can be Introduced to Improve the Efficiency of the Company: 1 Cash Flow statement: This statement shows the Funds movement of the company. The company will be able to know regularly whether the company is generating the cash flow from operating, investing, financing activities or using cash flow from above activities. 2 Daily production reports with variance, if any: The management should see t the daily production reports from production department and most importantly the variance if any generated from the report and the same should be carried forward to the next day. 3. Budgets of every department: Company should along with the departmental heads frame the budgets of every department. Then after every month the management should compare the actual results with the budgets prepared. After comparing with the budgets the management should analyse the variance/ favorable conditions and discuss the same for reasons with the departmental heads. References: Selling Power, 10 Tips to improve your sales performance, viewed on 16th Aug, 2016, https://www.sellingpower.com/content/article/?a=10089/10-tips-to-improve-your-sales-performance. Brain Tracy, 14 proven Strategies to increase sales of your product, viewed on 16th Aug, 2016https://www.briantracy.com/blog/sales-success/proven-strategies-to-increase-sales-of-your-product/. Entrepreneur India, 10 ways to improve Profiability, viewed on 16th Aug, https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/184240.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

What Role Do Chinese Civil Society Organisations Play free essay sample

What role do Chinese civil society organisations (CSO) play? Please answer this question with reference to at least three different Chinese CSOs. Chinese civil society organisations (CSOs) are non-governmental, non-profitable community based schemes who aim to tackle and address the social problems afflicting The People’s Republic of China, with the majority of their efforts based in the rural areas of the country. These organisations can range from small groups of a few people to groups exceeding a million people (Wang 2009). Their emergence and development have arisen by a combination of Government and market failure to deliver an adequate social service to it is citizens, but more importantly a â€Å"broadened social base. † The growing active participation of citizens within the public sphere and public affairs (Wang 2009). Within China, CSOs vary considerable in regards to their size, area, scope and nature however they all possess the same four basic civic functions, resource mobilization, public services, social governance and policy advocacy (Wang 2009). We will write a custom essay sample on What Role Do Chinese Civil Society Organisations Play? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page These functions tackle economic, social and environmental problems and aim to enact change within these sectors. Examples of common injustices include income deprivation, unemployment, inadequate access to health care and education, discriminatory labour conditions and practises, gender inequality and environmental degradation. This essay shall analyse the role CSOs play in China, and use examples of such organisations to evaluate their impact. Socially, Chinese CSOs have a fundamental role to play within the People’s Republic of China. They effectively tackle the main social issues afflicting the majority of the population which include problems such as access to education and health, gender inequality and inadequate social welfare. For example China Youth Development Foundation, established at the end of the 20th Century is a mass organisation under the Communist Youth League. The organisation mobilizes funds raised locally and internationally to help youth education and social welfare. An illustration of its success is â€Å"Project Hope†, a project aimed and ensuring children of rural areas gain access to formal education. By the end of 2005 the initiative had built â€Å"12,559 primary schools and 200 Internet Schools† in poor rural areas (Edward, 2005). Furthermore it trained over 30,000 village primary school teachers and developed over 13,000 Hope library kits. Such a drive has helped over two million children from poor families receive their basic nine years of education. The CSO further rewarded China’s rural youth by establishing a reward fund to support the top ranked students in further studies. The organisation also attempts to better China’s youth’s knowledge of health, and in particular HIV and Aids via its â€Å"Action Red Ribbon. † It is a programme to increase HIV/Aids awareness amongst children in badly affected areas. Its eventual goal is to increase awareness in these areas by over 70% over the coming years (China Youth Development, 2004). The organisation is mainly funded by cash and in-kind contributions from major corporations such as Motorola and Nokia, which were paramount to it raising $7. million and made $7 million in grants in 2002 (Edward, 2005). China Family Planning Association further targets adolescents, as a means to bring about change within rural areas. They like the CYD, educate adolescents on the risks of HIV/Aids, and ensure they are aware of their sexual and reproductive rights, thus empowering them to make informed decisions. They also attempt to aid females, and in particular attempt to reduce the number of unsafe abortions by recognising a woman’s right to a safe abortion and providing the required services. A further NGO which helps impoverished women is the Cultural Development Center for Rural Woman, a non-profit organisation which promotes the legal and social rights and opportunities of rural woman in China. It launched a monthly magazine called â€Å"Rural Women Magazine† which offered advice to its readers on rights and services available legally to woman. The revenue from the sales of this magazine has been used by the NGO to fund their research and activism. In addition the group has also established a training centre which offers women courses in practical skills such as computing, sewing and hairdressing but also gender awareness classes. However though these examples may illustrate that socially, CSOs play an important role, (mobilising resources, mainly manpower, money and training, and delivering an improved public service in the form of health care and education), their influence is in reality restricted because of a number of challenges. Initially many organisations including the aforementioned China Youth Development Foundation have been dogged with rumours of corruption (Edward, 2005). Though cleared of financial improprieties by the Central Commission of Discipline Inspection (Xin Dingding, 2004), Yong and Ran (2004) argue that â€Å"questions remain about the effectiveness and commitment of the CCDI itself. As a result Chinese donors became sceptical of fully supporting such organisations for purposes of poverty reduction, and social improvement (Edward, 2005). Economically, CSOs in China play an important role and tend to concentrate their efforts in rural areas of the country, due to their high tendency of income inequality, wage discrimination and poor working conditions amongst its residents. Their efforts stem from the Government’s failure to protect rural workers economic rights, and develop rural areas economically. The Amity Foundation set up in the mid 1980’s as a sub group under the Chinese Protestant Association, concentrates its efforts on field based rural poverty projects. For example in 2002, its â€Å"integrated rural development project†, this spanned six provinces and helped over one hundred thousand citizens. The project funded mainly by western aid sought to increase rural household economic sustainability via farming and livestock training, watershed management and microcredit for women. The charity raises its funds from private donations in major Chinese cities such as Nanjing, and offers donors the option of donating their gifts to specific issues or projects (Amity Foundation, 2004). However it could be argued that overall CSOs play a small role economically within Chinese Society due to the restrictive practises by the ruling communist party, combined with their strict legal laws. These included the need to â€Å"register with a sponsoring state agency that would oversee and be responsible for the organizations activities† (Edward, 2005). Another restrictive policy was the banning of â€Å"similar organizations† co-existing at the various administrative levels, for example prohibiting the presence of two national trade unions. This results in reducing the number of registered non-profit organisations and keeps their operating number low (Du, 2003). In addition the policy of microcredit (the lending of small amounts of money to individuals with no collateral) which has shown signs of being very successful is inhibited by Government action. Initially, rates of lending are set externally by the People’s Bank of China so fail to allow for flexibility for NGOs to choose a level which facilitates their expansion. This is combined with the Government prohibiting the charitable organisations from collecting pools of borrower savings and payments. Such collections can be used as a â€Å"revolving fund† to increase clients and guarantee present borrowers have a real stake in the project (Du, 2003). Such a policy is thus counterproductive as it prevents CSOs from mobilising â€Å"new resources to strengthen and expand their rural lending activities† (Wu, 2001). Environmentally the role played by CSOs such as the Yunnan PRA Network (established In 1993) is key to nature and agricultural conservation amidst China’s rapid economic growth (Edward, 2005). It’s â€Å"Participatory Rapid Appraisal Network† promotes the use of sustainable techniques and planning in potentially environmentally damaging projects. For example the organisation has trained village leaders in citizen participation and decision making (World Bank, 2002). Environmental CSOs importance have been increased by the growing trend of foreign companies to work alongside them with new projects within China to aim to reduce pollution and promote greater awareness of environmental damage (Du, 2003). In conclusion CSOs number and importance in China has increased mainly to tackle the issue of rural poverty. Each deploys specific strategies, financed by various sources to reach their target sector, social, economic or environmental. Their role collectively and individually is a prerequisite and growing within Chines society due to the failure of the Government to provide an adequate social service to the whole population. However their ultimate impact is, and will continue to be limited due to the main constraints on them, including rigid government management policies and corruption. However there is potential for the eventual establishment of the precedent of government officials working alongside CSOs productively to effectively respond to the issues within the civil society, mainly rural poverty.